DRIP IRRIGATION FOR PEAR TREES

Origin, dissemination and uses

The common pear tree (Pyrus communis L.) is a tree belonging to the Rosaceae family and the subfamily Pomoideae. The species, native to the central and eastern parts of Europe and the south-western parts of Asia, is now widely distributed around the globe. The fruit is intended for both fresh consumption and industrial processing.

Caracteristic of the species and requirements

The pear tree is characterised by an upward growth pattern and considerable vigour: if left to grow, it can reach 15-20 metres in height.

Its biological cycle is biennial: in spring-summer it vegetates, bears fruit and initiates the phenomena of induction and differentiation of the buds that will give production the following year; these processes are interrupted during the winter cold (leaf fall) and then resume at the spring awakening.

The chemical/physical characteristics of the soil suitable for its cultivation are closely related to the rootstock used: the footstock, for example, is more tolerant than the quince in terms of active lime content; it is also less sensitive to drought by virtue of its greater root depth, which makes it suitable for fresh, deep soil.

The pear dislikes temperatures that are too cold (minimum temperature -20°C) but also excessive sunlight, which is responsible for necrosis and depigmentation of the fruit. Winter cold is however essential to properly meet the cold requirements (500-1200 hours).

Mild temperatures help the fruit to ripe correctly (climacteric), thus improving the phenomena of starch and tannins degradation (responsible for the astringency of the fruit).

Esigenze idriche e irrigazione del Pero

The annual water requirement of the pear varies on average between 500 and 700 m3/hectare, values that must always be contextualised on the basis of the soil and climate characteristics of the growing area and agronomic aspects (rootstock, varieties, forms of farming, planting density, soil management, etc.).

Several studies have shown that proper irrigation management of the pear orchard during the entire vegetative-productive cycle leads to production increases of 20-30% compared to “dry” management, with significant improvements in fruit size, quality and preservation.

Irrigation is particularly important in southern areas and for summer-ripened cultivars (early or very early), as it allows the fruit to reach its optimum ripening stage and, at the same time promotes the reproductive sub-cycle in progress.

Irrigation and fertigation system

With reference to modern cultivation systems that aim at intensifying the plants, the solutions proposed by Irritec rely on heavy driplines with reduced spacing between the drop points, laid on the ground along the row or hooked on the wire of the support shoulder.

This creates a wet strip along the row, which is useful both for faster rooting of the young plants and for proper root development in subsequent years. However, the spacing between the drip heads must also correlate to the nature of the soil, trying to avoid excessively close spacing in soils with a high proportion of clay.

This would lead to potential water stagnation problems, to which pear trees are particularly sensitive and which are often the main cause of fungal diseases at root level such as collar rot (Phytophthora spp.) and root rot (Armillaria mellea, Rosellinia necatrix).

In the case of very long rows and/or particular ascending and/or descending slope conditions, Irritec proposes the self-compensating dripline (Multibar C or Multibar F), which is capable of delivering the set flow rate within a pressure range of 0.5 to 4.0 bar.

Rootguard technology is added to this system when adopting sub-irrigation is desired, a practice that is widely used in fruit cultivation and which is also positively suited to the cultivation of pear in the most typical version of double row lines.

Water and fertilisers are thus fed directly into the area explored by the root system, minimising losses by evaporation and, if shifts and sprinkling times are well managed, also those by deep percolation with the adjoining wash-off of dissolved salts.

For fertigation, Irritec offers systems suitable for open field that can improve the farmer’s fertiliser distribution: there is a choice of simple systems such as Venturi injectors, more accurate ones such as the Ferticlick bypass for simple  proportional or volumetric fertigation of a fertiliser, or others such as the Dosabox Junior Advanced that allows the injection of up to 3 fertilisers + 1 acid through automatic proportion dosing.

Irritec’s preferred objective with such systems is to maximise the uniformity of water delivery and dissolved salts across the entire plot regardless of its size and topography.

Pear Trees Cultivation - Drip irrigation system

A practical example of how to drip irrigate pear trees:

Here are the Irritec products you need to drip irrigate pear trees

1

MULTIBAR®

The classic Multibar C dripline with a self-compensating cylindrical drip head is the ideal solution for irrigating multiseason crops and is also suitable for sloping terrain and uneven topography. Multibar™ C Rootguard™is the ideal dripline for subirrigation installations, guaranteeing high precision emission during irrigation cycles. The Rootguard™ anti-root system allows the drip line to be buried and withstand the test of time without suffering problems of root intrusion.

multibar pear trees dripline

2

TUBING IN PE AND CONNECTO™

The Connecto™ line of compression fittings for the conveying pressurised fluids, particularly suitable for irrigation and gardening systems, is characterised by its great speed and ease of assembly.

pipes for pear irrigation

3

METAL FILTERS

Irritec® metal filters are robust and durable. They can managea wide range of flow rates. Manual or automatic models are available for canal and well water applications.

filters irrigation pear trees

4

FERTIGATION

Irritec® fertigation systems combine practicality and reliability with a modern nutrient injection system. Fertiliser management is regulated by simple fertigation recipes that can be set according to agronomic and nutritional requirements. Proper hydraulic management, which is essential for conveying the right nutrition to plants, is ensured by years of experience in sizing machines and equipment and by reliable and certified materials.

5

DRIPLINE FITTINGS AND BRANCHES

Irritec® low pressure fittings and valves are the ideal solution for agricultural and residential irrigation systems. The products have a wide scope of application and are characterised by their ease of installation and assembly. Made from plastics, this product family includes: economical couplings, hose fittings, PE-PVC – LayFlat tubing branches, tape and light drip line fittings, classic drip line fittings, cylinder valves, mini ball valves, ball valves, hydrants, pressure regulators, air vents, threaded fittings and spiral pipe fittings.

fertigation system pear trees

Discover how to irrigate others crops

Irritec wants to make life easier for those who take care of the plants, for work and for passion. We aim to ensure that every drop is spent as well as possible, minimizing the ecological footprint.

Agronomic Irritec Team support the farmer also on after-sale and installation, with continuous assistance and efficiency control. Continuous attention to the customer needs to provide succesful and sustainable solution with an efficience service.